Replicate Number 
Run Number  
1  2  3  4  5  
1  100.70  99.46  99.96  101.80  101.91 
2  101.05  99.37  100.17  102.16  102.00 
3  101.15  99.59  101.01  102.44  101.67 
Mean  100.97  99.47  100.38  102.13  101.86 
Standard Deviation  0.236  0.111  0.556  0.321  0.171 
RSD1  0.234%  0.111%  0.554%  0.314%  0.167% 
1
RSD (relative standard deviation) = 100% × (standard deviation/mean)

Source of Variation 
Degrees of Freedom (df) 
Sum of Squares (SS) 
Mean Squares1
(MS) 
F =MSB /MSW 
Between Runs  4  14.200  3.550  34.80 
Within Runs  10  1.018  0.102  
Total  14  15.217  
1
The Mean Squares Between (MSB) = SSBetween/dfBetween and the Mean Squares Within (MSW) = SSWithin/dfWithin

No. of Runs 
No. of Replicates 
Precision of the Mean Corresponding to Various Test Plans (# of Runs, # of Reps per Run) 

Variance of the Mean 
SD of the Mean 
Mean1  RSD (%)  
1  1  1.251  1.118  100.96  1.11 
1  2  1.200  1.095  100.96  1.09 
1  3  1.183  1.088  100.96  1.08 
2  1  0.625  0.791  100.96  0.78 
2  2  0.600  0.775  100.96  0.77 
2  3  0.592  0.769  100.96  0.76 
1
Sample mean is based on the 15 data points presented in Table 1.

n = 10  n = 9  
Data  Normalized  Data  Normalized  
100.3  +0.555  100.3  +1.361  
100.2  +0.482  100.2  +0.953  
100.1  +0.409  100.1  +0.544  
100.0  +0.336  100.0  +0.136  
100.0  +0.336  100.0  +0.136  
100.0  +0.336  100.0  +0.136  
99.9  +0.263  99.9  –0.272  
99.7  +0.117  99.7  –1.089  
99.5  –0.029  99.5  –1.905  
95.7  –2.805  
Mean =  99.54  99.95  
SD =  1.369  0.245 
n = 10  
Data  Deviations from the Median 
Absolute Deviations 
Absolute Normalized 

100.3  0.3  0.3  1.35  
100.2  0.2  0.2  0.90  
100.1  0.1  0.1  0.45  
100  0  0  0  
100  0  0  0  
100  0  0  0  
99.9  –0.1  0.1  0.45  
99.7  –0.3  0.3  1.35  
99.5  –0.5  0.5  2.25  
95.7  –4.3  4.3  19.33  
Median =  100  0.15  
MAD =  0.22 
n = 9  
Data  Deviations from the Median 
Absolute Deviations 
Absolute Normalized 

100.3  0.3  0.3  2.02  
100.2  0.2  0.2  1.35  
100.1  0.1  0.1  0.67  
100  0  0  0  
100  0  0  0  
100  0  0  0  
99.9  –0.1  0.1  0.67  
99.7  –0.3  0.3  2.02  
99.5  –0.5  0.5  3.37  
Median =  100  0.1  
MAD =  0.14 
Sample Size  Pr[F >¼ F0.05, n1, n1] 
12  0.7145 
13  0.7495 
14  0.7807 
15  0.8083 
16  0.8327 
17  0.8543 
18  0.8732 
19  0.8899 
20  0.9044 
Method  Variance (standard deviation) 
Sample Size 
Degrees of Freedom 
Alternative  45.0 (6.71)  20  19 
Current  25.0 (5.00)  20  19 
zvalues  
Confidence level  Onesided ()  Twosided (/2) 
99%  2.326  2.576 
95%  1.645  1.960 
90%  1.282  1.645 
80%  0.842  1.282 